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Memorial Volume 




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Unitomity of JlBortfj Carolina 

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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

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H]/ihoh i5'"/78i 
Scale of Yards 

Site of the Maryland Mojntjmeot. 


"Fat/i Maschi, Parole Femine." 

At ,i meeting of the Maryland Historical Society, in 
Baltimore, on fune 8th, 1891. Professor Edward Graham 
1 )aves offered a resolution : 

"That this Society inaugurate a movement to erect a 
Monument on the battle field a( Guilford Court House^ 
commemorative of the heroic deeds oi the Maryland 
I due on that historic spot." 

The motion was unanimously adopted and Professor 
Daves, General Bradley T. Johnson and \Y. Hall Harris 
were appointed a Committee to mature plans for this 
purpose. On November 9th the Committee made a report, 
recommending that the scene of the exploits of the Mary- 
land soldiers on Guilford battle field be marked by a Memo- 
rial Stone, with suitable inscriptions, and that the cost be 
defrayed by voluntary subscription among the members 
of the Historical Society. The Committee was instructed 
to earn into effect this recommendation, and it decided 
that the Monument should consist of a rough cubic block 
of Maryland granite, adorned with two bronze tablets, the 
one to contain the Maryland Coat of Arms, and the 
other an inscription of dedication. 

The Guilford Battle Ground Company earnestly favoured 
the undertaking, and at its meeting on March 15th, 
18 )2, the i nth anniversary of the battle, voted "that the 
Company extend to the Maryland Historical Society all 
the aid it can in accomplishing its noble purpose." 

During the summer the work was completed, and on 
October 1 2th, under the supervision of Hon. D. Schenck, 
the >tone was placed in position, near the junction of the 
"Bruce road" and the old "New Garden road," fronting 
th( iost held by the men of the Maryland Line on the 
opposite hill, and commanding a view of the field over 

which they twice charged victoriously upon the choices! 
tr< ii ips ( if the enemy. 

Ine ceremony of dedication was held on October nth. 
file day was beautiful, and the picturesque grounds wen 
brilliant with the varied hues of autumn, as well as with 
the red and blue of the National flag and the historic black 
and gold of Maryland. The line of battle was distinctly 
marked, sign-boards indicating the position of ever) 
regiment engaged, while most fittingly there floated a 
British flag over the spot where Colonel Stuart of the 
Guards fell, in a hand to hand fight with the Maryland 
hero, Captain John Smith Glancing over the field it 
required but little imagination to people it again with the 
contending hosts, and to follow ever)' movement in that 
su] ireme In »ur < it c< inflict. 

At in ion an appreciative audience- gathered around 
the speaker'-- stand. where Rev. B. F. Dixon, 
President of the Greensboro Female College, opened 
the exercises with a patriotic prayer. The chorus 
sang "Mv Country, 'tis of Ihec and Judge Schenck 
introduced the orator oi the day, Professor Edward 
Graham Daves, a native of New Bern and resident 
of Baltimore, through whose efforts the Monument was 
erected. The subject of his address was "Maryland and 
North Carolina in the Campaign of i/Ho-'Si," and the 
speaker prefaced it by calling attention to the many 
battles of the Revolution, from Brandywine to Kutaw 
Springs, in which the troops of these two Colonies fought 
side by side. He gave a succinct but clear account of 
the Guilford campaign, and showed the important role 
played b) the men of North Carolina and Maryland in 
the last act of the great Revolutionar) drama. Their 
conduct under the brilliant leadership of Greene decided 
the issue of the war, and the British historian Stedman, 
who was the Commissary General of Cornwallis in this 



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campaign, acknowledges that its events "were ol so 
momentous importance as to place within the grasp of 
the revolted Colonics the independence and sovereignty 
for which they had been so long contending.'' This 
scholarly paper oi Professor Daves was afterwards read 
before the Maryland Historical Society, on November 
14th. 1892, and is printed in their Fund Publications. 

At the conclusion of this address, "Maryland, My 
Maryland!" was sung, and then Professor E. A. Alder- 
man, of the North Carolina Industrial College for Girls, 
delivered the response on behalf of the Guilford Battle 
Ground Company He dwelt upon the sentiment of 
patriotism and the inspiration that comes from the scenes 
of heroic deeds; he accepted for North Carolina the gift 
from Maryland with reverent gratitude, and prayed that 
the massive granite block, with its legend of "Manly 
Deeds and Womanly Words," may stand forever a fresh 
and sympathetic bond of amity between the proud 
Commonwealth that gave it and the proud Common- 
wealth that received it. 

After the singing of "The Old North State," ami the 
presentation of flowers to the speakers by the ladies of 
Greensboro, the whole company marched to the black- 
and-gold enwrapped Monument, where Miss Edith 
Hagan gracefully recited a poem by Mrs. E. D. Hundley 
on the Battle of Guilford, and on its conclusion the 
Memorial was unveiled to the accompanying music of 
"Honour the Brave," and with greetings of enthusiastic 

The huge unhewn stone stands out grandly in its 
rugged simplicity, with which contrasts happily the 
artistic finish of the handsome bronze tablets. A lofty 
pole is planted near by, and from it floats on festal days 
the brilliant heraldic flag which Maryland has inherited 
from the Lords Baltimore. 


Major John Daves, oi Xcwbern, North Carolina, ua- 
born in 1 74S in what is now Mecklenburg County. 
Virginia. He was brought when very young to Craven 
County, North Carolina, in which Count)-, on September 
29th, 1750, a grant for six hundred ,\ni\ fort}' acres of 
land was issued by Governor Gabriel [ohnston to his 
uncle, Richard Daves. William Daves also purchased 
land in Craven ( ounty as early as March, ijy>, and in a 
deed bearing i\a'u- 30th April, 1754. he is described as 
"late of the Colony ol Virginia, but now of 'Xewbern 

The ancestors of John Daves were English. The first 
of the name in this country came from London about the 
middle of the 17th century, and settled in Virginia, in 
what was afterwards Chesterfield County; whence his 
descendants moved into the counties to the Southward, 
Ami into North ( arolina. The following extract from 
Smith's Obituary, P. 33 is said to refer to this family: • 

"1652, December 24th. Died, John Daves, broaker; 
buried in St. Olave's, Old Jewry. His son, Thomas 
Daves, a book-seller, was afterwards an Alderman, and 
Lord Mayor of London, enriched by the legacy of Hugh 
Audlev." do this Daves there is reference, under 
date of November 23rd, [662, in Bonn's edition of Pepys' 

On 25th October, 1770, John Daves purchased from 
the Commissioners oi the town oi Newbern the premises 
occupied by him during his lifetime as his homestead; 
an unusual condition of the Commissioners' deed being 
that within eighteen months from the date of its 
execution there should be built on the land "a house at 
least 24x16 feet of stone, brick or frame," a failure to 
comply with which made void the conveyance. Shortly 


thereafter he married his first wife, Sally, daughter of 
John Council Bryan, a planter, of which marriage there 
was a sen, John, who died in earl} - childhood. 

In the stirring times previous to the Revolution, and 
during that war, the men of Newbern were active and 
prominent. Her Minute Men, under Caswell, bore a 
conspicuous part in the victorious campaign of Moore's 
Creek, in the Winter of 1 776, and it is said that John 
Daves then served as a private. But the first record we 
have of his services during the Revolution, throughout 
the whole of which he was in the field, is as Quarter- 
master of the Second North Carolina Regiment of the 
Continental Line, June 7th, 1776. This Regiment, with 
the First, participated in the successful defence of 
Charleston, South Carolina, in June, 1776, and the bearing 
and efficiency of the North Carolinians were highly 
commended by General Charles Lee. Soon afterwards 
all the North Carolina Continental Regiments, or 
Battalions .is they were then called, were brigaded 
under command of Brigadier-General James Moore. 
General Moore died in April, 1777, and the command 
devolved upon General Francis Nash, who was trans- 
ferred, with his Brigade, to the army of General 
Washington. These troops acquitted themselves with 
credit at the battle of Brandywine, in September, 1777, 
and were heavily engaged at Germantown, where they 
lost General Nash, Colonel Fdward Buncombe and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Irwin, of the Fifth Regiment, 
Captain Jacob Turner and many others. John Daves, 
who had been commissioned Ensign in the Second 
Regiment, September 30th, 1776, distinguished himself 
in this battle, and his commission as First Lieutenant 
bears its date, October 4th, 1777. With his comrades he 
shared the miseries of the memorable Winter of 1777-78, 

at Valley Forge, the Brigade being then commanded by 
General Lachlan Mcintosh, oi Georgia. 

In fune following, by virtue oi a resolution ol Congress 
passed in May, [778, the nine Regiments of the Brigade 
were consolidated into lour, and many of its officers were 
retired, or assigned to other commands; Lieutenant 
Daves was among those retained. 

At Monmouth, in June, 1778, the Brigade was next in 
action, and the winter of '77^ '79 was passed at Morris- 
town, New fersey. Two Companies of the Second 
Regiment formed part of the assaulting column of General 
Anthony Wayne at Stony Point, New York, Jul)- 10th, 
sjj<), and were warmly commended by him for their 
gallant behaviour. Major 1 lardy Murfree commanded the 
detachment, and Lieutenant Daves, who was severely 
wounded in the attack, is said to have been a volunteer 
in the "Forlorn Hope," led by Lieutenant G'bbon, of 
Pennsylvania, afterwards of Virginia. Lieutenants Daves 
and Gibbon, both of whom subsequently attained the 
title of Major, were ever after intimate friends. 

After his recovery, Lieutenant Daves went with his 
Regiment, in the Spring of 17X0, to the relief of 
Charleston, South Carolina, and was made prisoner of 
war at the surrender of city by General Benjamin 
Lincoln to Sir Henry Clinton, 12th May, 17S0. By this 
calamity North Carolina was deprived, at a time of sorest 
need, of all her veteran troops, many of 
whom, including their distinguished General, James 
Hogun, died while prisoners of war. Having been 
exchanged, Lieutenant Daves was assigned, January 1st, 
17S1, to the Third of the four new Regiments levied to 
supply the places of those lost at Charleston. These 
Regiments, raised and equipped only after incredible 
labor, were not organized in time to bear a part in the 
Guilford campaign, but three of them, constituting the 

Brigade of General Jethro Sumner, and officered by 
veterans of long experience, won for themselves at 
Eutaw Springs, September 8th, 1 781, the highest enco- 
miums for their bravery and steadiness. In his report oi 
the battle, General Greene says of them: "I am at a 
loss which most to admire, the gallantry of the officers 
or the good conduct of the men." 

After the battle of Eutaw, General Sumner was recalled 
to Xorth Carolina to punish and overawe certain bands 
of Tories, one of which, under the notorious David 
Fanning, had captured, at Hillsboro, on September 13th, 
17S1, Governor Thomas Burke. Sumner's stay in North 
Carolina was short, for we find him, with his command, 
again in South Carolina, in February, 1782, at Ponpon, 
where, on the 6th of that month, there was a reassign- 
ment of the officers of the North Carolina Line, Captain 
John Daves — for on the da)- of the battle of Eutaw 
Springs he had been promoted to that rank — retaining 
his position in the Third Regiment. 

In April, 1782, Captain Daves married at Halifax, 
North Carolina, Mary Haynes, then in the thirty-first 
year of her age. She was the widow of Oroondatis 
Davis, of that place, and daughter of Andrew Haynes. 
Her mother, Anne Eaton, was a daughter of William 
Eaton, of Bute, (Warren) County, and Mary Rives, of 
Virginia, his wife. 

Upon the reduction of the Continental Army in January, 
1783, Captain Daves and most of his fellow officers were 
retired, and placed on "waiting orders" until November 
15th, 1783, when, with the return of peace, he was 
mustered out of service. By a resolution of Congress, 
passed in September, 1783, officers of the Continental 
Line, who had served for a certain length of time, were 
promoted one grade "by Brevet." The promotion, which 
was honorary only, was in recognition of long and faithful 

S 7 

Service, and it was probably to this resolution that 
Captain Daves owed his title of Major, by which he was 
always known after the war. 

The State Society of the Cincinnati, composed of 
officers of the Continental Cine, was organized .it 
Hillsboro, in October, 1783, with General Jethro Sumner 
as President, and Rev. Adam Boyd as Secretary. Major 
Daves was one ol the original members ol the Society — 
sixty-two in all — but unfortunately it was short-lived. 
Public sentiment in this State, and elsewhere, was 
adverse to the Society at that time, and nothing is known 
Of its existence since 1790. Its interesting records are 
probably lost, but it was represented in the meetings of 
the General Society, held in Philadelphia, in 1784, 17N7 
and 171,0, when it disappears from the record. The 
names and rank ol its original members have, however, 
been preserved." 

Major Daves was elected Collector of the Port of 
Beaufort, "with office at Newbern," by the Legislature, 
which sat at Hillsboro, in April, 1784, and at the same 
session an Act was passed authorizing the Continental 
Congress to collect duties on all foreign merchandise 
entering at the ports of the State. But in 1 789 the State- 
ratified the Constitution of the United States, and that 
prerogative having thereby passed to the General Gov- 
ernment, President V ashington appointed John Daves, 
on the 9th of February, 1790, Collector of the Port of 
Newbern, and on the 6th of March, 1792, advanced him to 
"Inspector of Surveys and Ports of No. 2 District — Port 
of Newbern," an office held by him until his resignation 
in [anuary, 1800. 

In May, 1787, Major Daves was elected one of the 
"Commissioners of the Town of Newbern," a body 

►University Magazine, No. 6, Mav, 1893, anil January, 1894. 


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which, at that time and previously, had, in addition to 
its other powers, authority "To Grant, onvey and 
Acknowledge in Fee, to any person requesting the same, 
any lot or lots in the said town, not already taken up and 
.save 1." Many conveyances of these Commissioners are 
registered in the Count)' of Craven. 

An Act of Assembly, passed in [789, appointed John 
Daves and others vestrymen of Christ Church Parish, 
Newbern, a parish originally established by law in 1715, 
and first called Craven Parish. This Act was merely in 
the nature of a new incorporation, an 1 for Church purposes 
onlv', where is the vestriss of Colonial days hid been 
clothed with many of the powers of our County Commis- 

Major John Daves died in Newbern on the 12th of 
October, 1S04, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. He 
was buried in that town, in Cedar Grove Cemetery, with 
military and Masonic honors, and rested there until 
June, 1893, when his remains and the handsome monu- 
ment shown in our engraving were transferred by his 
grandsons, Edward Graham and Graham Daves, to 
Guilford Battle Field, where, in the perpetual and tender 
care of the Battle Ground Association, the}' now repose. 
Meet resting place, where sleep old comrades and 
former friends, for him whom his epitaph so well 
describes as 

"One of the well tried Patriots of our Revolutionary War." 

His widow survived Major Daves eighteen years. 
Their children were Sally Eaton, Mrs. Morgan Jones, 
whose many descendants are now in Arkansas and 
Mississippi; Ann Rebecca, Mrs. Josiah Collins, of 
Edenton, North Carolina; John Pugh Daves, whose 
children still live in Newbern, and Thomas Haynes 
Daves, whose numerous posterity live in Alabama and 



Edward Graham Daves, second son of John Pugh 
Daves and Elizabeth Batchelor Graham, was born in 
New Hern, March 31st, 1833. His grandfathers were. 
Major John Daves, a gallant officer of the North Carolina 
Continental Line in the Revolutionary Army, and 
Edward Graham, a leading member of the bar of Craven 
County. Mr. Graham dying just before the birth oi his 
grandson, to the latter was given his name, lli^ father 
died when he was but five years ol age, and all his alter 
training he owed to the wisest and tenderest oi mothers. 

His education began at the New Hern Academy, under 
the formal Lancastrian system of Alonzo Attmore, a rigid 
teacher of the 18th century type. Later he had the benefit 
of the genial instruction of Rev. F. M. Hubbard, afterwards 
Professor of Latin at Chapel Hill, and soon showed 
marked taste for the classics, being at the age ol twelve 
at the head of his class as a student of Vergil and Cicero. 
His earl) - boyhood was spent at New Hern, amid tin- 
refining and cultivating influences of the old town, then 
still in the after-glow of its brightest days; and the 
summer holidays were passed at Raleigh with his 
kindred, the family of Hon. William H. Haywood, or at 
Beaufort, at that time a seaside village of marked quaint- 
ness and simplicity in customs and character. 

This first phase in the life of young Daves ended in 
1847, when he was invited to the plantation of his cousin, 
fosiah Collins, on Lake Scuppernong, Washington 
County, there to prepare for College under private tutors. 
Mr. Collins was a man of wealth and culture, and his 
home was a centre of refinement and hospitality. The 
plantation was a type of the best Southern life of that 
day; every detail of the management was admirably 
systematized, and the government was like that of a 

1 1 

perfectly organized principality under a mild and benefi- 
cent autocratic rule. The only neighbours were the 
Pettigrew family, and society had to be sought within 
the house, which in winter was filled with guests. For 

the children's education there was a resident instructor 
in English, the classics and mathematics, and another in 
French, German and music. Love of God, love of 
kindred, and love of country were diligently inculcated, 
and the standard of gentlemanlike conduct was that of 
Sir Philip Sidney — "High erected thoughts seated in the 
heart of courtesy." 

After three fruitful years passed amidst these surround- 
ings, Daves entered Harvard at the age of seventeen. 
This was his first glimpse of the outer world, and the 
change was great from the atmosphere of a Carolina 
plantation to that of a New England town. Harvard 
was then a mere College with a fixed curriculum; there 
were about three hundred undergraduate students and as 
man)- more in the professional schools, while now the 
total number in the University is more than three 
thousand. The Southerners were very few, but their 
influence in College life was out of proportion to their 
numbers. The President was Jared Sparks, the pioneer 
explorer among the archives of American history, and 
in the Faculty were Peirce, the great mathematician, and 
Longfellow. Among the students were President Eliot, 
Bishop Perry, Furness the Shakesperean, the younger 
Agassiz and Phillips Brooks. 

A diligent student and of social tastes, Daves was popu- 
lar with his associates, and was chosen President of various 
College Societies and Marshal of his class. In classical 
studies he was especially proficient, and he had the 
advantage of admirable instruction from Sophocles, a 
native Greek, the most thorough of teachers, and a 
perfect master of all Hellenic lore. Graduating in 1854 


with second honours, and with a prize for oratory, re- 
entered the Harvard Law School, where he occupied 
himself both with legal studies and private teaching. I le 
left Cambridge in [856 with the degree of Bachelor o( 
Laws, and after a short time spent in the office of Brown 
& Brune, in Baltimore, was admitted to the Maryland 
bar. fust then came the unexpected and flattering 
announcement of hi-- citation to the Greek Professorship 
at Trinity College, Hartford; the temptation was too 
Strong for resistance, and law hooks were lai 1 aside for 
hi-- fa\ ' trite classics. 

For five years he devoted himself to the duties <>t this 
position with diligence and success, and in the spring ol 
[86l he sailed for Europe. Attending lectures for a 
short while at the University of Bonn, in the autumn he 
settled in Berlin. It was a most interesting historic- 
epoch in the North German capital. William had just 
been crowned King of Prussia, and the initial measures 
of his memorable reign were the appointment of the then 
little-known Bismarck as Prime Minister.' and the 
perfecting of that admirable arm)' organization which 
was destined to revolutionize the military system of 
Europe. The intelligent looker-on in Berlin in that 
winter of 1 861 -'62 could see the rising of the curtain on 
the great political drama of our generation, the denoue- 
ment of which was the unification of Germany, the 
conquest of France, the founding of the Germanic Empire, 
the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, and the 
downfall of the thousand-year-old edifice of Papal 
temporal power. 

Daves travelled much in Germany, studying and 
teaching, and moved to Paris in the spring of 1863, a 
brilliant moment at the French capital. Louis Napoleon, 
flushed with his victories in the Crimea and in Italy, was 
posing as the arbiter of Europe, and the Court of the 



Tuileries was the centre oi highest political interest. 
The Empress Eugenie, then at the meridian of her beauty 
and charm, was the acknowledged Queen of taste and 
fashion, and around her throne were fluttering the 
butterflies of every clime. \<> eye could then see the 
han [writing on the wad, though the Emperor had 
already made his first great mistake, and, reckoning 
confidently on the success ol the Confederate cause in 
America, was wasting the resources of France in the 
Utopian scheme of founding a monarchy in Mexico. 

Alter a year spent in France Daves made his home in 
Vevey on the Lake of Geneva, and there established a 
private school for American boys. Five years were here 
passed in successful teaching, the routine life being 
broken by frequent journeys. In 1865 a month was soent 
at Rome, then still under Papal sway. It was that 
interesting period so vividly depicted in Crawford's 
Saracinesca. Pio Nono had returned from exile with his 
ardour for reform completely chilled, and had thrown 
himself fully into the arms of the Jesuits. Reaction 
reigned supreme; every liberal aspiration was suppressed, 
and • ntonelli ruled the State with the skilful craft of a 
Machiavelli. The city was strongly garrisoned by 
French troops, on whose bayonets rested the Papal 
throne. The people, kept under control by stringent 
police regulations, seemed content and submissive, but 
many an incident showed that beneath the calm surface 
were dangerous elements of resistance and rebellion. 
At the races on the Campagna an English jockey 
happened to combine in his costume red, white and 
green, the colours of the new kingdom of Italy, and his 
appearance was the signal for demonstrations of wild 
enthusiasm. He won the race; and when the mob saw 
the proscribed Italian colours borne to the front, it could 
no longer brook restraint. The barriers were broken 


down, the crowd swarmed over the track, and tried to 
carry off both horse and rider in triumph. A riot ensued, 
and ''Mine's prison-- that night were filled with the leaders 
of the insurgent pi >pulace. 

Tlw World's Fair of 1867 attracted all travellers to 
Paris. The Second Empire seemed at the pinnacle ol 
glory, though already Maximilian lay dead at Oueretaro, 
and the bloody held of Koeniggraetz had shown 
Prussia to be the first military power of the world. The 
sovereigns, statesmen and illustrious men ol every 
country in Europe crowded the French capital, and were 
entertained with great military pageants intended to 
prove France was invincible in arms. Baron 
Haussman's extravagance had made the city a marvel ol 
beauty; society was never gayer or more brilliant; and 
the mere "looker-on in Vienna" left the capital oi 
pleasure with the impression that France was alike happy 
in her social conditions and powerful in her political and 
military organizath >n. 

In [869 Daves moved with his pupils from Vevey to 
Florence, and took an apartment on the Piazza l'itti, 
from which, like Mrs. Browning from the neighbouring 
Casa Guidi windows, he could in fancy watch the 
succession of important events in the royal palace across 
the square, which had become the centre of Italian life 
,{\m\ aspiration. Victor Emmanuel, the rough soldier- 
king, could be daily seen on the streets, greeted every- 
where with respect and affection, for he had kept the 
vow made on the fatal field oi Novara, and the cross oi 
Savoy had led the Italians to victory and independence. 
When the Princess Margherita arrived in Florence as the 
bride of Prince Umberto, the whole city blossomed out 
into daisies in honour of her name, and the emblematic 
flower was seen everywhere, adorning bonnets, em- 
broidered on gowns, or moulded into jewelry. On a 


dark snowy morning when she was holding a reception 
at the Pitti, the people crowded the Piazza and filled the 
air with vivas. She stepped out upon the balcony and 
stood for a moment bowing to the populace, her fair 
form in bridal dress standing out in bold relief from the 
dark background oi the old palace, while the snow was 
falling upon her bare head and shoulders. A symbol of 
Italy coming forth in renewed youth and beauty from the 
storms of revolution, and behind her the gloomy grandeur 
of her historic past. 

On a summer journey in 1X70, Daves reached Paris just 
as the tidings came of the choice of a Hohenzollern to 
the vacant throne of Spain. The effect was most dramatic ; 
the long-sought pretext for war was found, and all 
France went wild with excitement. Crowds gathered in 
the streets singing the Marseillaise and shouting "To 
Berlin! To Berlin!" and hardly a voice was raised to 
check the madness of the hour. The ignorance and 
infatuation of the authorities were criminal; none knew 
the power of Prussia, or how totally unprepared was 
France for the struggle. "We accept the responsibility 
with light heart," said the Prime Minister; the army is 
so well equipped, reported the Secretary of War, "that 
we can fight for two years without having to renew a 

Passing into German}', Daves found there also intense 
feeling, but of a very different character; it was the grim 
determation of a great people to make an)' sacrifice 
rather than submit to further humiliation at the hands of 
a foe to whom the}' owed generations of wrong and 
suffering. All internal dissensions were hushed in love 
of country, and the patriotic strains of "The Watch on 
the Rhine" were heard from the Baltic to the Alps. It 
was inspiring to note the enthusiasm with which the 
Prussian Crown Prince was greeted as commander of 


the South German army, which only four years before 
had faced him in the bitter civil war. He entered France 
before the enemy could reach the frontier, and a campaign 
of a single month shattered to ruin the Empire and its 
mil itar) po' er at Sedan. 

Returning to Italy in the autumn, Daves determined 
to travel with pupils in the Orient. Nearly three 
months were spent amidst the wonders of Egypt, and 
thence the journey was taken through the Sue/ canal 
to yria, where began tent-life and genuine Eastern mode 
of travel. To transport, shelti r an 1 care for the party ol 
elece i pjr.s >ns the lr.ig >m i i pr >vi le 1 eight tents, thirty - 
three servants and thirty-nine horses ami donkeys. In 
ect comfort was passed a month of delightful wander- 
ing in the II >ly Land; [erusalem, Bethlehem and 
Nazareth, the Dead Sea, the Ionian and Sea ol Galilee 
were visited, and the inspiring journey ended on the 
picturesque heights oi Mt. Carmel, whose base is \\ ished 
by tlie Mediterranean 

Coasting along the shores of Asia Minor, the travellers 
rea lied Constantinople, the meeting point of the tides oi 
Asiatic and European life, and thence returned through 
the islands of tin Aegean to Greece. In comparison 
with the civilizations of the East ancient Athens seems 
modern ; but standing under the shadow of the I 'art hen on, 
or .it Colonus listening to the nightingales of Sophocles, 
one teels this is the m >st sacred shrine for the 
student pilgrim, and that h -re was done more than in 
any other land for the intellectual elevation of mankind. 
A new city is rising amid the picturesque ruins of the old' 
and with the healthful growth of her University Athens. 
after long dark centuries of slavery, is again radiating her 
beams of sweetness and light. It is a rare pleasure to 
listen to a lecture on Greek art or philosophy in the little 
motlilied language of Euripides and Plato. 






From the isthmus of Corinth the journey was down 
the Gulf, the dolphins of Arion playing in its blue waters, 
and the sacred slopes of Helicon and Parmassus rising 
from its shores. Out into the Ionian Sea, under the cliff 
of Sappho to Corfu, thence across to Brindisi, where the 
entrance gate to the Appian Way seems to welcome the 
wanderer and to lure him to Rome. But first to Cam- 
pania Felix, the garden of Italy, which in the freshness 
of spring-time looks like an earthly paradise to the eye 
long accustomed to the grey rocks and sands of Egypt 
ami Syria. A glimpse of Naples, of Vesuvius and Pom- 
peii, ami then to the Eternal City, now become the 
capital of Italy. An audience was granted to Daves by 
Pio Nono, and touched by his refinement and gentleness 
one could but look with respectful compassion on this 
voluntary prisoner of the Vatican. The decree of the 
Council of July, 1870, promulgating the dogma of the 
Infallibility raised him to a height attained by no mortal; 
but hardly two months later the Italian troops captured 
the Holy City, and the ancient kingly dignity and tem- 
poral power of the Popes were at an end. 

The summer was passed in slowly travelling across 
Europe, taking en route the Tyrol, the wonderful Passion 
Play at Oberammergau, the battle fields of Gravelotte 
and Sedan, Paris, with its ruined palaces — Hei mihii 
quantum mutatus ab Mo — Rotterdam and London. 
Returning to America, after an absence of ten years, 
Daves settled in Baltimore, and devoted himself to 
private teaching and lecturing on literal'}- topics. 
Recently his interest has centred in Colonial history, 
and he is an active member of the Cincinnati and of the 
Society of the Sons of the Revolution. Through his 
efforts and influence the Monument to the heroes of the 
Maryland Line has been erected on Guilford battle field, 
and he has organized a company for the purchase and 
preservation of Fort Raleigh, on Roanoke Island, the 
birthplace of Anglo-American civilization.